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MSUB GEO 211 - Quizzes 5-10

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The final Exam will include some questions from the first 4 quizzes, but will concentrate on material covered since the first Exam, i.e., the historical and paleontological material Quiz 5 1. Alfred Wegener envisioned the concept of a supercontinent of the past called A) Pangaea. B) Laurasia. C) Gondwanaland. D) Antarctica. 2. The key to Harry Hess’ understanding of the young age of the seafloor lay in the measurement of A) rate of sediment deposition in the deep sea. B) high rates of heat flow. C) seismic waves from earthquakes. D) average thickness of sediment on the seafloor. 3. In Hess’ concept of plate tectonic movement, continental rifts were explained as A) the location of former seamounts and guyots. B) the location of upwelling limbs of two adjacent convective cells in the mantle. C) the location of newly formed crust. D) a place on Earth much like a descending conveyor belt. 4. Strong support for Hess’ concept of widening seafloors came in the 1960s when it was recognized that the pattern of Late Cenozoic magnetic reversals determined in terrestrial rocks was evident on the seafloor in the form of A) guyots and seamounts. B) symmetrical patterns of magnetic striping about mid-ocean ridges. C) normal magnetization of mid-ocean ridges. D) constant rate of seafloor spreading. 5. Which of the following is not typically associated with a subduction zone? A) Island arc B) Mélange C) Deep-focus earthquakes D) Normal faults 6. The Hawaiian Islands owe their existence to the process of volcanism that is directly related to A) plate tectonics. B) a hot spot. C) subduction. D) transform faulting. 7. A guyot is a A) convective cell in Earth’s mantle. B) volcanic island that has been eroded by the action of waves. C) furrow down the center of a mid-ocean ridge. D) name for all kinds of volcanic seamounts. 8. Which of the following key fossils that played an important role in the history of continental drift theory was a plant? A) Glossopteris B) Mesosaurus C) Lystrosaurus D) Pakicetus9. Today, Earth’s magnetic pole has a declination of __________ from the geographic pole. A) 7° B) 17° C) 70° D) 77° 10. Select the characteristic below that is not consistent with continental rifting. A) Multiple thrust faults and other compression features B) Thick sedimentary sequences within fault block basins, including lake deposits C) Mafic dikes and sills D) Coarse terrestrial deposits and evaporites overlain by oceanic sediments 11. Synclines are characterized by A) layers that are concave downward. B) layers that are concave upward. C) layers that include a high proportion of shales. D) layers that include a high proportion of massive sandstones and limestones. 12. Ophiolites consist of A) sand and sandstone. B) evaporites overlain by marine sediments. C) black shales and cherts. D) ultramafic rocks overlain by pillow basalts. 13. Relative to the position of a typical metamorphic belt, a fold-and-thrust belt lies A) on the oceanic side of the subduction zone. B) toward the continental interior. C) directly below, in the deeper crust. D) directly above, in rocks thrust over the metamorphic belt. 14. A thick package of molasse is sometimes referred to as a (an) A) clastic wedge. B) structural basin. C) elongate foreland basin. D) ancient mountain belt. 15. The Black Hills of South Dakota are a A) structural basin. B) metamorphic belt. C) fault zone. D) structural dome. 16. Deep-seated crustal faults dating from Proterozoic may have caused powerful earthquakes with epicenters in __________ during 1811-1812. A) the District of Columbia B) Mississippi C) Missouri D) all parts of North America 17. _________ is the name given to microcontinents that have attached themselves to larger landmasses, especially the western part of North America. A) Ophiolites B) Exotic terranesC) Structural domes D) Iberias Quiz 6 – Historical Geology 1. The Hadean and Archean eons include about __________ percent of Earth’s history. A) 4 to 5 B) 54 C) 45 D) 90 2. Select from those listed below the incorrect reason that Archean rocks are rare on Earth’s surface. A) Erosion has destroyed many Archean rocks. B) Metamorphism has altered many Archean rocks so that they cannot be dated properly. C) Archean rocks have plentiful, yet small, index fossils. D) Archean rocks tend to be buried below sedimentary and volcanic rocks. 3. Our planet’s early ocean was formed by A) atmospheres of asteroids and comets that struck Earth as it formed. B) volcanic emission of water vapor. C) chemical reactions in the crust and in the early atmosphere. D) melting of polar ice caps. 4. The oldest known crustal materials, fragments from crustal rocks as much as 4.38 billion years old, are A) volcanic rock fragments. B) zircon crystals. C) quartz crystals. D) uranium-bearing rocks. 5. Increasing area of shallow seafloor during Archean promoted growth of A) biomarkers. B) stromatolites. C) bacteria. D) eukaryotic cells. 6. The nucleic acid likely to have been present in the earliest life forms, RNA, was the genetic basis for an early ecosystem on Earth called A) the amino acid planet. B) DNA world. C) RNA world. D) the nucleic acid world. 7. The survival of pyrite grains transported with other Archean sediments shows us that bacteria-produced oxygen was A) very rapidly building in the early atmosphere. B) being taken out of the atmosphere by sinks in early Earth. C) not yet forming and would require more time for evolution to change that fact. D) no match for the vast quantities of oxygen produced in other ways.8. Cratons of modern proportions first began to form during A) Neoproterozoic B) Mesoproterozoic C) Paleoproterozoic D) late Archean 9. The Wopmay orogeny, involving the Slave craton and an island arc, tells us that A) the Proterozoic crust was still hot and plastic like the Archean crust. B) there were no glaciers present on Earth at this time. C) Proterozoic orogenies are much like Phanerozoic orogenies. D) we should not look for Proterozoic flysch and molasse deposits. 10. The intracellular body called a chloroplast was originally A) a stromatolite. B) some DNA and RNA. C) a cyanobacterial cell. D) a mitochondrion. 11. Believed to be the __________ of dinoflagellates, the __________ were the most common algal plankton of the Paleozoic and Neoproterozoic. A) biomarkers; stromatolites B)

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