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NMT PET 524 - Fluid Flow in Porous Media

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PET 524Fluid Flow in Porous MediaFall Semester 2010Thomas W. Engler, Ph.D.,P.E.Course objectives1. to develop an understanding of the basic physical characteristics of porous media and the fluids contained therein, 2. to understand and appreciate the mechanisms that drive fluid flow in porous media and 3. to apply this knowledge to some of the more complex problems of fluid flow through porous media.Course objective1. to develop an understanding of the basic physical characteristics of porous media and the fluids contained therein, Structure and Properties of Porous MaterialsPorosityPermeabilityStatic Properties of Fluids in Porous MediaSaturationMultiphase phenomenaCourse objective2. to understand and appreciate the mechanisms that drive fluid flow in porous media Physical and mathematical theory of flowDarcy’s LawCourse objective3. to apply this knowledge to some of the more complex problems of fluid flow through porous media.Transient laminar flow of homogeneous fluidsSimultaneous flow of immiscible fluidsSimultaneous flow of miscible fluidsbVpVebulk volum volumePorePorosityPore spacematrixBulk volumePath of fluid flowPorosityTotal vs Effective porosity?PorosityEffective porosity –Interconnected cleanPore spacee= ?e= ?heterogeneoushomogeneousmicroscopic macroscopicvolumeporosity01PorosityPorosity is an average property over a R.E.V.Porosity shss 1ssLnRshsnr1*31*3Csh*ssC111sssh)1( 1DispersedLaminatedCriticalConcentrationSedimentary rocksClastics CarbonatesGrain sizeSortingPackingShapeFrameworkFractures vugschannelsintergranularintercrystallinePorosityPorosity textural parameters(After Krumbein & Sloss)Porosity textural parametersPorosity textural parametersPorosity textural parameters(After Krumbein & Sloss)Porosity textural parametersVb= Vg=  =Porosity textural parametersThe sphericity of a grain refers to the dimensions of the grain with respect to a equi-dimensional sphere. The roundness is related to the roughness of the grain from angular to smooth. [After Pettijohn, et al.,1973]The degree of sorting and packing are dependent upon two final textural parameters; roundness and fabric of the grains.Porosity textural parametersfabric is the composite effect or framework of the various grains[After Pettijohn, et al.,1973]Depth – 1492 ft., Field of view is ~80 microns. Pore space is blue. The yellow dye is a stain for potassium feldsparObservations• this is a fairly high porosity sandstone. •Average grain size is less than 10 microns.Depth – 1497, 100X mag, FOV ~90 microns. Observations • Sand grains are coarser and more well-rounded, • Less clay content, more anhydrite cement• Note abundant feldspar (yellow stain, andrelative lack of porosity.Porosity textural parametersPorosity carbonates[After Anderson,1975]Porosity carbonatesPorosity carbonatesALfLfhfwbVpVfSchematic of a single fracturefhfwfnAfhfwAfnf)(2mLfLDefine fracture porosity,orWheretortuositynf, number of fractures per unit


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