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REPORT OF THE WORKING GROUP

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Session I Summary Organizing the White House for International Policy* Reorganization OptionsREPORT OF THE WORKING GROUP ON FOREIGN POLICY INFRASTRUCTURE AND GLOBAL INSTITUTIONS WORKING GROUP CO-CHAIRS: Joseph S. Nye, Jr. Harvard University Anne-Marie Slaughter Princeton University 1TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................3 I. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZED FOR THE INFORMATION AGE....................................................5 II. JOINED-UP GOVERNMENT .................................................................................................13 III. JOINED-UP GOVERNANCE................................................................................................21 CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................................27 APPENDIX A: WORKING GROUP PARTICIPANT BIOGRAPHIES .................................................29 APPENDIX B: OTHER PROPOSALS ENDORSED BY THE CO-CHAIRS..........................................35 APPENDIX C: “THE PRIVATIZATION OF AMERICAN NATIONAL SECURITY” CONFERENCE REPORT...................................................................................................................................38 APPENDIX D: “ORGANIZING THE WHITE HOUSE FOR INTERNATIONAL POLICY” DISCUSSION PAPER ...................................................................................................................................49 APPENDIX E: KEY RECOMMENDATIONS OF SELECTED OTHER REPORTS ................................58 2A NATIONAL SECURITY INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY PRINCETON PROJECT ON NATIONAL SECURITY WORKING GROUP ON FOREIGN POLICY INFRASTRUCTURE AND GLOBAL INSTITUTIONS Joseph S. Nye, Jr. and Anne-Marie Slaughter (co-chairs) Introduction This report is based on the work of the Princeton Project on National Security (PPNS) Working Group on Foreign Policy Infrastructure and Global Institutions, which met five times between November 2004 and August 2005. The working group's members included Ivo H. Daalder, Mickey Edwards, Michèle A. Flournoy, Richard N. Haass, John Hewko, Edmund J. Hull, Lorelei Kelly, Anja Manuel, Jeffrey Miotke, Stewart Patrick, Allison Stanger, Max Stier, Amy Zegart, and co-chairs Joseph S. Nye, Jr. and Anne-Marie Slaughter. Working group members examined national security institutional and infrastructure needs by drawing on their own extensive experience and expertise, contributing think pieces for discussion, and commissioning three longer papers on democracy promotion, reconstruction and development, and intelligence reform. The working group reached general agreement on many of this report's points, but the report is not a consensus document. Instead, it reflects the views of the co-authors as informed by the working group's input and deliberations. The report was written by the co-chairs and working group research assistant Jordan Tama. The report draws upon the views and reports of other PPNS working groups. In a sense, it logically follows the reports of the other groups because its focus is on equipping the U.S. government for implementing a national security strategy. But government institutions must also play a central role in formulating national security policy, so this report's themes are relevant to the entire policy process, from policy development to execution. As the reports of the other working groups highlight, the United States faces both transnational and state-based threats, including catastrophic and conventional terrorism, highly infectious diseases, a global financial meltdown, the rise of China, and dependence on a handful of states for oil. These threats, although different in origin, present common challenges in terms of national security infrastructure. They all require a set of national security institutions that can: • process, analyze, and integrate vast quantities of information from all parts of the globe quickly and accurately; • work effectively with each other and with other relevant government agencies; • respond quickly and flexibly, and adapt continually to changing circumstances; 3• collaborate with their counterparts abroad and with international institutions on a real-time basis; • and partner successfully and accountably with the private and non-profit sectors. In short, the United States needs an infrastructure that enables its national security officials to play chess on two boards at once, with state and non-state actors, in the face of a very fast time-clock and rapidly changing rules. To achieve this capability, the United States must reform government institutions and the people within them, and must build capacity within government and without. Specifically, it needs to organize government for the information age and establish joined-up government and governance. 1. Government organized for the information age: Government is awash in national security information, but too often does not use that information wisely. As countless studies have pointed out, often the problem in meeting a threat or responding to a crisis begins with “knowing what we know.” Policymakers need to know what capabilities we possess and be able to connect the relevant actors, both in the U.S. government and in other governments, so that they can share and update information. Second, national security officials must manage information strategically, rather than consuming it passively, by learning to get the information they need to make decisions and/or sift it from the mass of information available to them. Third, decisionmakers need the capacity to respond quickly and adapt to incoming information. The rapid transmission of information through networks or other means must spark timely action and reaction, and better still, prevention of problems and crises. Fourth, congressional and executive branch officials must use information to monitor action through metrics designed to measure and improve national security performance and to hold actors accountable for their results. Fifth, the United States needs to deploy information as the core of its soft power (the power of attraction rather than coercion). Individuals abroad cannot be attracted to us if they do not know who we are and what we do. Finally, government


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