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CU-Boulder GEOG 3682 - Planning

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Page 1Titlesl I I Helping Marianne Gronemeyer Page 2Titles~~ ". . ! I , I Medieval Alms Giving Page 3Titlesi Help Overseas , I I. I Making the Poor Fit for Work Page 4Titlesi '. Reaching for Worldwide Simultaneity Page 5TitlesAid and the Elegance of Power Page 6TitlesThe Anibiguity of Self-Help and Sharing Page 7Page 8Page 9Titles68 Helping References Bibliography Helping 69 Page 10TitlesNeeds Ivan lIIich f Neither Necessities Nor Desires I !I Page 11Titles'Needs' in the Development Discourse Page 12Titlesl I I Helping Marianne Gronemeyer Page 13Titles~~ ". . ! I , I Medieval Alms Giving Page 14Titlesi Help Overseas , I I. I Making the Poor Fit for Work Page 15Titlesi '. Reaching for Worldwide Simultaneity Page 16TitlesAid and the Elegance of Power Page 17TitlesThe Anibiguity of Self-Help and Sharing Page 18Page 19Page 20Titles68 Helping References Bibliography Helping 69 Page 21TitlesNeeds Ivan lIIich f Neither Necessities Nor Desires I !I Page 22Titles'Needs' in the Development Discourse Page 23Titlesr Page 24Page 25TitlesUnder the Mask of Compassion Page 26TitlesFrom Needs to Requirements References , Page 27Titles100 Needs Bibliography Needs IOJ Page 28TitlesOne World Wolfgang Sachs One Mankind Page 29TitlesOne Market Page 30TitlesOne Planet Page 31TitlesSpace Against Place Page 32Page 33TitlesCosmopolitan Localism Page 34TitlesII 114 One World beginner; the man for whom each country is as his own is already strong; but References Bibliography One World 115 Page 35TitlesPlanning Page 36TitlesDismantling and Reassembling Societies Page 37Page 38Page 39TitlesKnowledge as Power Page 40TitlesKnowledge in Opposition Page 41Titles144 Planning References Bibliography Planning 145 Page 42TitlesPoverty Majid Rahnema Many Perceptions, Countless Words Four Dimensions of Poverty Page 43TitlesThe Global Construct Page 44TitlesThe Construct in Action Page 45Page 46TitlesA World Economy against Vernacular Villages Page 47TitlesSignals from the Grassroots Page 48Page 49Titles172 Poverty References Poverty 173 Page 50Titles174 Poverty Bibliography Poverty 175 Page 51TitlesProduction Jean Robert A Man and A Concept Page 52TitlesResources Vandana Shiva Gifts, Inputs and Substitutes t t I ~ t r t ~ i Page 53TitlesDesacralization of Nature Page 54TitlesDestruction of the Commons Breaking Nature's Limits Page 55TitlesUndermining of Sustenance Page 56Page 57TitlesLimits of Nature - Limits to Development References Bibliography Page 58TitlesScience Claude Alvares Page 59TitlesStandard of Living Serge Latouche GNP Per Head: A Post-war Invention Page 60Page 61TitlesWell-Being and Well-Having I I i I r Page 62TitlesBlind Spots I \ i Page 63Titlest 1 Page 64TitlesMany Faces of Wealth , I .l ~ t l Page 65Titles262 Standard of Living References Bibliography Standard of Living 263 Page 66TitlesrPlanningArturo EscobarPlanning techniques and practices have been central to development since itsinception. As the application of scientific and technical knowledge to the publicdomain, planning lent legitimacy to, and fuelled hopes about, the developmententerprise. Generally speaking, the concept of planning embodies the beliefthat social change can be engineered and directed, produced at will. Thus theidea that poor countries could move more or less smoothly along the path ofprogress through planning has always been held as an indubitable truth, anaxiomatic belief in need of no demonstration, by development experts of mostpersuasions.Perhaps no other concept has been so insidious, no other idea gone sounchallenged. This blind acceptance of planning is all the more striking giventhe pervasive effects it has had historically,not only in the Third World, butalso in the West, where it has been linked to fundamental processes ofdomination and social control. For planning has been inextricably linked to therise of Western modernity since the end of the 18th century. The planningconceptions and routines introduced in the Third World during the post-WorldWar II period are the result of accumulated scholarly, economic and politicalaction; they are not neutral frameworks through which 'reality' innocentlyshows itself. They thus bear the marks of the history and culture that producedthem. When deployed in the Third World, planning not only carried with it thishistorical baggage, but also contributed greatly to the production of thesocio-economic and cultural configuration that we describe today asunderdevelopment.Normalizing People in 19th Century EuropeHow did planning arise in the European experience? Very briefly, three majorfactors were essential to this process, beginning in the 19th century - thedevelopment of town planning as a way of dealing with the problems of thegrowing industrial cities; the rise of social planning, and increased interventionby professionals and the state in society, in the name of promoting people'swelfare; and the invention of the modem economy, which crystallized with theinstitutionalization of the market and the formulation of classical politicaleconomy. These three factors, which today appear to us as normal, as naturalparts of our world, have a relatively recent and even precarious history.In the first half of the 19th century, capitalism and the industrial revolutionbrought drastic changes in the make-up of cities, especially in NorthwesternEurope. Ever more people flooded into old quarters, factories proliferated, andindustrial fumes hovered over streets covered with sewage. Overcrowded anddisordered, the 'diseased city', as the metaphor went, called for a new type ofplanning which would provide solutions to the rampant urban chaos. Indeed, itPlanning 133was those city officials and reformers who were chiefly concerned with healthregulations, public works and sanitary interventions, who first laid down thefoundations of comprehensive urban planning. The city began to be conceivedof as an object, analysed scientifically, and transformed according to the twomajor requirements of traffic and hygiene. 'Respiration' and 'circulation' weresupposed to be restored to the city organism, overpowered by sudden pressure.Cities (including the colonial chequerboards outside Europe) were designed ormodified to ensure proper circulation of air and traffic, and philan thropists setout to eradicate the appalling slums and to bring the right morals to theirinhabitants. The rich traditional meaning of cities and the more intimaterelationship between city and dweller were thus eroded as the


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