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Apr. 22, 1921]UNITED STATES GOLF ASSOCIATION57into the turf with a switch broom, a street broom, or any suitable imple-ment. Flexible wire door mats tied together lengthwise make an ex-cellent device for this purpose. The frequency with which compost shouldbe applied to putting greens must necessarily be determined by localconditions. There is a general feeling that greens can be over-fertilizedwith it and there is little doubt that this can be done. The evidence seemsto indicate that too frequent applications or too heavy applications resultin a vigorous growtJti of soft grass too slow for good putting. On thisquestion, however, there is need for more definite data than are now avail-able.Compost as a Germinating LayerIn addition to its use as a top dressing for turf, compost is a valu'ablemedium with which to mix seed before sowing. For this purpose it maycontain as much as three parts of loam to one part of organic matter, andin fact a considerable preponderance of loam is desirable. The subjectof germinating layers for putting greens has been investigated somewhatcarefully, and it has been found possible to obtain a more uniform stand ofgrass by the proper use of a germinating layer than by any other commonmethod of sowing. Fred'V.Taylor, it will be recalled, used the shreddedpeat moss imported from Holland. This material, in his opinion, was thebest available, but subsequent investigations have proved that. compostwith a large proportion of loam is good,ifnot better. By mixing seedwith compost and spreading the mixture evenly over the seed bed, it ispossible to obtain a uniform and highly satisfactory stand of grass withone-quarter of the seed that is used by the ordinary method. A germinat-ing layer properly used makes uniform distribution possible and pro-vides suitable conditions for the germination of the seed and the develop-ment of the young seedlings. One advantage of compost over shreddedpeat moss is that it holds moisture better and it is not necessary t.owaterit constantly while the seed is germinating.Compost and the Construction of Compost Heaps"\VM.CONNELLAN,Grosse lIe, l\1ichigan.Compost is important for construction and repair work such as newgreens and tees, and in some cases fairways, where it is desired to storethe plant food and humus in the soil for the future use of the grass plants,to improve the water holding capacity and the mechanical texture or struc-ture of the soil.Method No.1.Compost heap of nWnll/re and sod.Lay down a bedsix to eight feet wide of manure a foot thick. Cover this with a layer ofold sods or loam about six inches thick, followed by another layer of manure,and so on, until the heap becomes four or five feet high. Finish off theheap with a layer of soil about four inches thick. Leave heap stand forabout two months, then break it down vertically, turn over and mix thor-oughly. Continue this operation at intervals of four to six weeks, untilthe heap is thoroughly mixed and the manure and sod completely brokendOlVn. In the meantime, make sure that the heap is always kept moistand cut down all weeds on the top before they go to seed.:l\'1ethodNo.2.Compost heap of mannre and muck or humus.Ifmuck or humus is available on the property, and labor cost warrants its58BULLETIN OF GREEN SECTION OF THE[Vol. I, No.4I ,...'"00-.....:::'tl~$::c:C;00"0'tlt:~:::~S~0C)d~.00;:;:...00(II:.-C)c).:::-...~~.....0CD':::$::00~oL.~~CI.l>~rg00>.;:L.~:;::CI.l'0oUlc:000-.:1c;<ll~~.- '->~>0......C)+-'E"OU)0~~a.E.........00000':::0.0.~Sf::1Ot[)c:o£lUC)oE.:::.:::'0......0.c:CDC)lU$::,...'0;;=0~.sIII«.:::001'tltt:dIiI;';jo.dii:CDt:t:0:;'5.6::...'".,sdtIlC)o.o~E~:l(!I-"0_"0'-'t:~c:~.erg::~rng~cv......,l(!I':::C)........,...000=%'?cr.:=(11~,gApr. 22, 1921]UNITED STATES GOLF ASSOCIATION59use, lay down a bed of muck or humus about a foot thick, cover this witha layer of manure six inches thick, followed by another layer of muck orhumus, and so on until the heap bccomes about four feet high. Top offthe heap with layer of soil four inches thick, and treat same as methodNo.1.Itis well to mix some lime with the muck.:Method No.3.Oompost heap ofl1tUckorhumusonly.If muck isavailable and cheap and manure is hard to procure, start the heap same as}\iethod No.2, with a layer of muck or humus one foot deep, cover thiswith a quarter inch coating of hydrated lime, followed by another layerof muck or humus, and so on until the heap is about four feet high. Leavestand for about three weeks, break down vertically and mix thoroughly.Treat same as Nos. 1 and 2, and at last turning add about ten poundscommercial animal fertilizer (bone meal, tankage or sheep manure) to eachcubic yard material by mixing thoroughly as the pile is turned.Composts 1, 2 and 3 should be used 2 to 4 inches thick on constructionwork depending of course to the nature of the soil. 'York the compost into a depth of 8 to 12 inches, depending npon the nature of the soil and use50 to 100 pounds of commercial animal fertilizer to a green 90 x 90 feet.Itis not necessary to adhere ~trictly to these proportions. They arebased on the assumption that the soil where they are to be used is pOOl'and'of bad texture. This is very often the case with greens and tees which areas a rule elevated or laid out on hills and knolls. If the soil is fairly richin humus and nearly correct in texturc cut down on the materials to fiteach particular case, as hardly any two cases are alike.Compost materials are especially valuable on hurried jobs such asbuilding a green or tee and seeding' within a limited time of say a monthor so.'Vhere time permits in the construction it is bettcr to haul materials,manure, ctc., direct to the job, without composting and work thcm intosoil, cultivatc and till 'until sceding time, using about the same amounts.This allows a great saving in labor for composting, which at its best is anexpensive operation on account of the hand labor required.These questions may now arise:1. How long docs it take from the time a compost pile is started untilit is ready to use?Usually eight to twelve months. :Much depends on the progress offermentation and decomposition. A loosely built heap will decomposemuch more rapidly than a well composted heap. A very good compostmay be made in two months, from manure only.2. How much compost (in cubic yards) will it take to cover a givenarea (say a green) ?About 135 cubic yards will cover an acre of ground one inch thick,and as there is about one-sixth of an acre to a good-sized green, 85

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