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Cardiovascular

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Chapter 15 Cardiovascular Disease Reducing Your Risk PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Michael Hall Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Objectives Discuss the incidence prevalence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease Describe the anatomy and physiology of the heart and circulatory system and the importance of healthy heart function Review major types of heart disease factors that contribute to their development diagnostic and treatment options and the importance of fundamental lifestyle modifications aimed at prevention Discuss controllable and uncontrollable risk factors for cardiovascular disease your own risk profile and determine the risk factors you can and cannot control Discuss methods of diagnosing and treating cardiovascular disease Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings 2001 Total Cardiovascular Disease Rates by State and Gender Age Adjusted Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Figure 15 1a 2001 Total Cardiovascular Disease Rates by State and Gender Age Adjusted continued Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Figure 15 1b An Epidemiological Overview Cardiovascular disease CVD is the leading cause of death in the U S In 2005 CVD accounted for approximately 38 percent of all deaths CVD has been the number one killer in the U S since 1900 except for 1918 influenza More that 2 500 Americans die from CVD each day Among women 1 in 2 6 deaths from CVD Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases in American Men and Women Ages 20 and Older Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Figure 15 2 Death Rates for Cardiovascular Disease Including CHD and Stroke for Selected Countries Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Figure 15 3 ABC News Cardiovascular Disease Play Video Cardiovascular Disease Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings ABC News Cardiovascular Disease Discussion Questions How does inflammation account for nearly 85 of all heart attacks What test measures inflammation and how expensive is it Why have physicians been hesitate to order tests to measure inflammation What dietary changes are recommended to lower inflammation Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Understanding The Cardiovascular System Cardiovascular system includes the heart arteries arterioles capillaries venules and veins The heart Muscular four chambered pump Contracts 100 000 times per day Two upper chambers atria Two lower chambers ventricles Tricuspid pulmonary mitral and aortic valves Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Heart Function Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium From the right atrium blood moves to the right ventricle pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs Oxygen blood enters the left atrium Blood from the left atrium is forced into the left ventricle The left ventricle pumps blood through the aorta to various parts of the body Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Anatomy of the Heart Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Figure 15 4 Types Of Cardiovascular Disease Atherosclerosis Coronary heart disease CHD Chest pain angina pectoris Irregular heartbeat arrhythmia Congestive heart failure CHF Congenital and rheumatic heart disease Stroke Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Percentage Breakdown of Deaths from Cardiovascular Disease in the United States 2001 Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Figure 15 5 Artherosclerosis Characterized by deposits of fatty substances cholesterol cellular waste products calcium and fibrin in the inner lining of the artery Hyperlipidemia abnormally high blood lipid level Plaque the buildup of deposits in the arteries Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Coronary Heart Disease Myocardial infarction MI or heart attack blood supplying the heart is disrupted Coronary thrombosis blood clot in the artery Embolus when the blood clot is dislodged and moves through the circulatory system Collateral circulation if blockage to the heart is minor an alternative blood flow is selected Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Angina Pectoris Ischemia reduction of the heart s blood and oxygen supply The more serious the oxygen deprivation the more severe the pain Nitroglycerin drug used to relax dilate the veins Beta blockers control potential overactivity of the heart muscle Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Arrythmias An irregularity in heart rhythm Tachycardia racing heart in the absence of exercise or anxiety Bradycardia abnormally slow heartbeat Fibrillation heart beat is sporadic quivering pattern Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Congestive Heart Failure CHF Damaged or overworked heart muscle is unable to keep blood circulating normally Affects over 5 million Americans Damage to heart muscle may result from rheumatic fever pneumonia heart attack or other cardiovascular problem Lack of proper circulation may allow blood to accumulate in the vessels of the legs ankles or lungs Diuretics relieve fluid accumulation Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Congenital And Rheumatic Heart Disease Congenital heart disease affects 1 out of 125 children born May be due to hereditary factors maternal diseases or chemical intake alcohol during fetal development Rheumatic heart disease results from rheumatic fever which affects connective tissue Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Stroke Occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted Thrombus blood clot Embolus free flowing clot Aneurysm bulging or burst blood vessel Transient ischemic attack TIA brief interruptions that cause temporary impairment Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Common Blood Vessel Disorders Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Figure 15 6 Reducing Your Risk For Cardiovascular


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