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MDC BSC 2011 - Animal Reproduction

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Chapter 46Overview: Pairing Up for Sexual ReproductionPowerPoint PresentationConcept 46.1: Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdomMechanisms of Asexual ReproductionSlide 6Slide 7Sexual Reproduction: An Evolutionary EnigmaSlide 9Slide 10Reproductive Cycles and PatternsSlide 12Slide 13Slide 14Slide 15Slide 16Slide 17Concept 46.2: Fertilization depends on mechanisms that bring together sperm and eggs of the same speciesSlide 19Slide 20Ensuring the Survival of OffspringSlide 22Slide 23Gamete Production and DeliverySlide 25Slide 26Slide 27Slide 28Slide 29Slide 30Slide 31Concept 46.3: Reproductive organs produce and transport gametesFemale Reproductive AnatomySlide 34Slide 35Slide 36OvariesSlide 38Oviducts and UterusVagina and VulvaSlide 41Mammary GlandsMale Reproductive AnatomySlide 44Slide 45Slide 46TestesSlide 48DuctsAccessory GlandsPenisHuman Sexual ResponseSlide 53Slide 54Concept 46.4: The timing and pattern of meiosis in mammals differ for males and femalesSlide 56Slide 57Slide 58Slide 59Slide 60Slide 61Slide 62Slide 63Slide 64Concept 46.5: The interplay of tropic and sex hormones regulates mammalian reproductionSlide 66Hormonal Control of the Male Reproductive SystemSlide 68Slide 69The Reproductive Cycles of FemalesSlide 71Slide 72Slide 73Slide 74The Ovarian CycleSlide 76The Uterine (Menstrual) CycleSlide 78MenopauseMenstrual Versus Estrous CyclesSlide 81Concept 46.6: In placental mammals, an embryo develops fully within the mother’s uterusConception, Embryonic Development, and BirthSlide 84Slide 85Slide 86First TrimesterSlide 88Slide 89Slide 90Slide 91Slide 92Slide 93Slide 94Slide 95Slide 96Second TrimesterThird TrimesterSlide 99Slide 100Slide 101Slide 102Slide 103Slide 104Maternal Immune Tolerance of the Embryo and FetusContraception and AbortionSlide 107Slide 108Slide 109Slide 110Slide 111Modern Reproductive TechnologiesDetecting Disorders During PregnancyTreating InfertilitySlide 115Slide 116Slide 117You should now be able to:Slide 119Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsPowerPoint® Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth EditionNeil Campbell and Jane ReeceLectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Chapter 46Chapter 46Animal ReproductionCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsOverview: Pairing Up for Sexual Reproduction•Each earthworm produces sperm and eggs; in a few weeks, new worms will hatch from fertilized eggs•Animal reproduction takes many forms•Aspects of animal form and function can be viewed broadly as adaptations contributing to reproductive successFig. 46-1Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsConcept 46.1: Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdom•Sexual reproduction is the creation of an offspring by fusion of a male gamete (sperm) and female gamete (egg) to form a zygote•Asexual reproduction is creation of offspring without the fusion of egg and spermCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsMechanisms of Asexual Reproduction•Many invertebrates reproduce asexually by fission, separation of a parent into two or more individuals of about the same sizeVideo: Hydra BuddingVideo: Hydra BuddingFig. 46-2Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings•In budding, new individuals arise from outgrowths of existing ones•Fragmentation is breaking of the body into pieces, some or all of which develop into adults•Fragmentation must be accompanied by regeneration, regrowth of lost body parts•Parthenogenesis is the development of a new individual from an unfertilized eggCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsSexual Reproduction: An Evolutionary Enigma•Sexual females have half as many daughters as asexual females; this is the “twofold cost” of sexual reproduction•Despite this, almost all eukaryotic species reproduce sexuallyFig. 46-3Asexual reproductionFemaleSexual reproductionFemaleGeneration 1MaleGeneration 2Generation 3Generation 4Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings•Sexual reproduction results in genetic recombination, which provides potential advantages:–An increase in variation in offspring, providing an increase in the reproductive success of parents in changing environments–An increase in the rate of adaptation–A shuffling of genes and the elimination of harmful genes from a populationCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsReproductive Cycles and Patterns•Ovulation is the release of mature eggs at the midpoint of a female cycle•Most animals exhibit reproductive cycles related to changing seasons•Reproductive cycles are controlled by hormones and environmental cues•Animals may reproduce asexually or sexually, or they may alternate these methodsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings•Several genera of fishes, amphibians, and lizards reproduce only by a complex form of parthenogenesis that involves the doubling of chromosomes after meiosis•Asexual whiptail lizards are descended from a sexual species, and females still exhibit mating behaviorsFig. 46-4Ovary sizeHormone levelBehaviorEstradiolOvulationOvulationProgesteroneTimeFemaleMale-likeFemaleMale-likeFig. 46-4aFig. 46-4bOvary sizeHormone levelBehaviorEstradiolOvulationOvulationProgesteroneTimeFemaleMale-likeFemaleMale-likeCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings•Sexual reproduction is a special problem for organisms that seldom encounter a mate•One solution is hermaphroditism, in which each individual has male and female reproductive systems•Some hermaphrodites can self-fertilizeCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings•Individuals of some species undergo sex reversals•Some species exhibit male to female reversal (for example, certain oysters), while others exhibit female to male reversal (for example, a coral reef fish)Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsConcept 46.2: Fertilization depends on mechanisms that bring together sperm and eggs of the same species•The mechanisms of fertilization, the union of egg and sperm, play an important part in sexual reproduction•In


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