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CUNY PGEOG 130 - Hurricanes

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Slide 1Slide 2Slide 3Slide 4Slide 5Slide 6Slide 7Slide 8Slide 9Slide 10Slide 11Slide 12Slide 13Slide 14Slide 15Slide 16Slide 17Slide 18Slide 19Slide 20Slide 21Slide 22Slide 23Slide 24HURRICANESMost information taken from the Tropical Prediction Center (National Hurricane Center)http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/http://hpccsun.unl.edu/nebraska/stuproj/amets00/hauptmann/spacegallery.htmlThe official hurricane season for the Atlantic Basin (the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico) is from 1 June to 30 November.www.accuweather.comStep 1Tropical Wave: "bump" or disruption of normal tropical easterly flow. Associated turning of wind causes low-level convergence of air; which helps with falling pressure and enhanced showers. Step 2This can evolve into a Tropical Depression, which is a closed circulation of air in the low levels. This in turn increases convergence and pressure falls, and wind speeds increase in a Catch-22 effect (i.e. the stronger the wind blows the greater the convergence, the quicker the pressure falls... so the stronger the wind, etc.). Hurricane Development (from www.accuweather.com)Step 3Once sustained winds reach 39 mph in the closed circulation a Tropical Storm is named. Usually there are at least 2 closed isobars of 4 mb increments around the center. If atmospheric conditions remain correct the system will evolve into a... Step 4Hurricane. There is usually a difference in pressure of at least 0.60 inches of mercury between the center and surrounding pressure field, with the greatest change near the center (eyewall). It is this great difference in pressure, which sometimes can be as great as 2.95 inches of mercury, that causes the wind to be so strong.Step 5A mature hurricane is a well-oiled meteorological machine, but disruption of the processes that drive the storm (i.e. interaction with land or colder air feeding in) will begin to destroy the storm, and the disintegration of a hurricane can often be quick and dramatic.http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/hurr/stages/cane/home.rxmlHurricanes are Earth's strongest tropical cyclones. A distinctive feature seen on many hurricanes and are unique to them is the dark spot found in the middle of the hurricane. This is called the eye. Surrounding the eye is the region of most intense winds and rainfall called the eye wall. Large bands of clouds and precipitation spiral from the eye wall and are thusly called spiral rain bandswww.accuweather.comHenri and Fabian Sep 5 2003 (www.accuweather.com)Hurricane Fabian: 30.1 north, 65.3 west, 155 miles south of Bermuda Tropical Storm Henri 28.1 north, 84.3 west, or 105 miles west-northwest of St. Petersburg, FloridaFabian: The hurricane warning remains in effect for Bermuda, as powerful Hurricane Fabian continues to track northward, toward the island. The hurricane is moving northward at 17 mph, with maximum sustained winds of 120 mph. The lowest central pressure is 951 mb (28.08 inches). Hurricane force winds extend as far as 115 miles from the center, while tropical storm force winds are as far out as 230 miles. Tropical wave: Near Cape Verde Islands, will probably be next named stormHenri: The relatively slow movement of Henri will mean as much as 8-15 inches of rainfall for parts of Florida. Severe weather is also a possibility in the right quadrant of the storm. We expect Henri to emerge off the east coast of Florida later tomorrow or tomorrow night. This system will probably affect the United States East Coast much of next week.Sep 8 2003 (www.accuweather.com)Hurricane Fabian: 50 north, 39 westTropical Storm Henri 33 north, 76 westHurricane Isabelle is way out in the Atlantic, more than 1,200 miles east of the Leeward Islands, as of 11 a.m. AST. Isabel has strengthened to a category 3 hurricane, with 115-mph maximum sustained winds, and is moving west-northwest at 14 mph. This motion will take Isabel near or north of the Leeward Islands on Friday Tropical Depression #14Sep 15 2003 (www.accuweather.com)Hurricane Isabelle has weakened a bit with 140-mph sustained winds, and hurricane-force winds extend as far as 115 miles from the center. Isabel is a dangerous, strong category 4 hurricane. The central pressure is estimated at 945 mb (27.76 inches). Isabel has also slowed down a bit and is moving west-northwest at 8 mph. It seems, looking at the steering pattern, that Isabel will strike the East Coast of the U.S. As we see it now, the area from North Carolina to New Jersey is the target of landfall; most likely the Delmarva Peninsula.MOVIESep 15MOVIESep 16Tropical StormWinds 39-73 mphCategory 1 Hurricane — winds 74-95 mph (64-82 kt)No real damage to buildings. Damage to unanchored mobile homes. Some damage to poorly constructed signs. Also, some coastal flooding and minor pier damage.Category 2 Hurricane — winds 96-110 mph (83-95 kt)Some damage to building roofs, doors and windows. Considerable damage to mobile homes. Flooding damages piers and small craft in unprotected moorings may break their moorings. Some trees blown down.http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/hurr/awar.rxmlCategory 3 Hurricane — winds 111-130 mph (96-113 kt)Some structural damage to small residences and utility buildings. Large trees blown down. Mobile homes and poorly built signs destroyed. Flooding near the coast destroys smaller structures with larger structures damaged by floating debris. Terrain may be flooded well inland.Category 4 Hurricane — winds 131-155 mph (114-135 kt)More extensive curtainwall failures with some complete roof structure failure on small residences. Major erosion of beach areas. Terrain may be flooded well inland.Category 5 Hurricane — winds 156 mph and up (135+ kt)Complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings. Some complete building failures with small utility buildings blown over or away. Flooding causes major damage to lower floors of all structures near the shoreline. Massive evacuation of residential areas may be required.DANGERS FROM HURRICANES -1- STORM SURGE -2- MARINE SAFETY -3- HIGH WINDS -4- TORNADOES -5- INLAND FLOODINGImages taken from three web sites.Tropical Prediction Center (National Hurricane Center)http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/University of Illinoishttp://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/hurr/home.rxmlSee their interactive hurricane tracker


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