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ACC BIOL 2304 - Endocrine Lecture outline

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BIOL 2304/2101/ Human Anatomy CH 25 – Endocrine System Endocrine Gland Ductless glands Secrete hormonesHormonesTarget CellEffects of hormones on target cells:a. change plasma membrane permeability and/or membrane potential by opening or closing ion channelsb. synthesis of proteinsc. activate or deactivate enzymesd. stimulate secretory activitye. stimulates mitosisMechanism:Comparison of Nervous and Endocrine SystemsElizabeth Maxim & Aniko Szabo Hill 1 of 8BIOL 2304/2101/ Human Anatomy CH 25 – Endocrine System Chemical Classification:a. amino-acid basedb. steroidHYPOTHALAMUSLocation: A) releasing hormones (RH) that are secreted in the hypothalamus & control anterior pituitary hormone secretion 1 GH-RH= growth hormone – RH2. TRH=thyrotropin-RH3. CRH=corticotropin-RH4. GnRH=gonadotropin-RH5. PRH=prolactin-RHinhibiting hormones (IH)6. GHIH=growth hormone-IH7. PIH=prolactin-IHElizabeth Maxim & Aniko Szabo Hill 2 of 8BIOL 2304/2101/ Human Anatomy CH 25 – Endocrine System B) hormones that are secreted in the anterior hypothalamus & stored in the posterior pituitary1) oxytocin2) anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)Elizabeth Maxim & Aniko Szabo Hill 3 of 8BIOL 2304/2101/ Human Anatomy CH 25 – Endocrine System Anterior Pituitary or AdenohypophysisLocation:  hypothalamus secretes releasing hormones (and inhibiting hormones) that control the release of anterior pituitary hormones  anterior pituitary secretes hormones that stimulate activity of various effector organs  the effector organ activity acts as negative feedback to control hypothalamic and pituitary secretionANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES1) Growth Hormone (GH)2) Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)3) Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)4) Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)5) Luteinizing Hormone (LH)6) Prolactin (PRL) Elizabeth Maxim & Aniko Szabo Hill 4 of 8BIOL 2304/2101/ Human Anatomy CH 25 – Endocrine System Posterior Pituitary or Neurohypophysis  cells in hypothalamus make hormones which travel down the axons of those cells into the posterior pituitary, where they are released into the blood by nerve impulsesTHYROIDLocation:1. T3 and T4 - thyroid follicle cells (follicular cells)2. Calcitonin - parafollicular cellsElizabeth Maxim & Aniko Szabo Hill 5 of 8BIOL 2304/2101/ Human Anatomy CH 25 – Endocrine System PARATHYROID GLANDSLocation:Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)Adrenal Glands:adrenal cortexadrenal medullaLocation of Adrenal Glands:ADRENAL CORTEX: Corticosteroids 1. Mineralocorticoids - Aldosterone2. Glycocorticoids - Cortisol3. Gonadocorticoids - androgens and estrogens most are androgens insignificant amounts compared to gonads probably contribute to onset of puberty adrenal androgens in adult females ==> source of sex drive==> possibly converted to estrogen after menopauseElizabeth Maxim & Aniko Szabo Hill 6 of 8BIOL 2304/2101/ Human Anatomy CH 25 – Endocrine System ADRENAL MEDULLACatecholamines - Epinephrine/Norepinephrine (EPI/NE)PANCREAS - Location:I. exocrine organ: produce digestive enzymesII. endocrine organ:1. Insulin - beta cells2. Glucagon - alpha cellsEndocrine Disorder:Type I Diabetes Mellitus(DM): Insulin dependent DM=IDDMType II Diabetes Mellitus(DM): Not-insulin dependent DM = NIDDMSymptoms:Elizabeth Maxim & Aniko Szabo Hill 7 of 8BIOL 2304/2101/ Human Anatomy CH 25 – Endocrine System OVARIES/TESTES - steroidal sex hormonesOvariesLocation:1) estrogens - estradiol2) progestins - progesteroneTestesLocation:1) androgens - testosteronePINEAL GLANDLocation:MelatoninTHYMUSLocation:ThymosinElizabeth Maxim & Aniko Szabo Hill 8 of


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