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TUSCULUM BIOL 101 - chemistry review -- presentation -- 2006

Course: Biol 101-
Pages: 52
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Macromolecules & MonomersSynthesis & DegradationSynthesis & Degradation Dehydration Synthesis ReactionsPolymerization Hydrolysis ReactionsPolymerization & DegradationAmino Acids & ProteinsProtein FunctionsPeptide FunctionsAmino AcidsAmino AcidsCODES & SYMBOLSPeptide BondSlide 13ProteinSlide 15Slide 16Primary structure determine foldingSecondary StructureSlide 19Slide 20Tertiary StructureSlide 22ProteinsSlide 24Slide 25Slide 26Slide 27Slide 28CarbohydratesCarbohydrates – Cn(H2O)nSlide 31Slide 32Slide 33Slide 34LipidsLipids – Fatty AcidsSlide 37Lipids TriacylglyceridesLipids PhospholipidsLipids – SterolsLipids – Fatty SterolsLipids – WaxesSlide 43Nucleotides & Nucleic AcidsNucleotidesSlide 46Slide 47Nucleic acidsSlide 49Slide 50Nucleotides & Nucleic acidsSlide 52Macromolecules & MonomersMonomer Polymer(Building Block) (Macromolecules)Amino acid ProteinMonosaccharidePolysaccharide (simple sugar) Nucleotides Nucleic acidsLipidsSynthesis & DegradationSynthesis & DegradationDehydration Synthesis ReactionsMonomer Monomer MonomerMonomer Monomer MonomerHPolymerizationHydrolysis ReactionsMonomer Monomer MonomerMonomer MonomerMonomerHPolymerization & DegradationHMonomerMonomerMonomerMonomerAmino Acids & ProteinsProtein Functions•Enzymes–106 – 1012 increase in reaction rate•Transport–Transmembrane, systemic, intracellular•Amino acid storage–Casein•Structural–Collagen, keratin, fibroin, cytoskeleton•Mechanical–Muscle contraction, dynein & kinesin, cilia & flagella•Protection–Antibody, fibrinogen, keratin•Killing–Complement, toxins•Information processing–Signal transduction, rhodopsin, RNA & DNA polymerasePeptide Functions•Glutathione–Protection against oxygen damage•Oxytocin–Lactation & Uterine contractions•Neuropeptide Y–Appetite stimulating•Choleocystokinin–Appetite suppression•Vasopressin & Atrial natriuretic factor–Increases / Decreases blood pressure•Met- and Leu-enkephalins–Opioid peptides•Substance P & Bradykinin–Pain perception-Carbon–Hydrogen atom–Amino group–Carboxyl group–One of 20 R-groups (side chains)Amino AcidsAmino AcidsCODES & SYMBOLS•Each amino acid has a trivial name, a 3-letter code, and a 1-letter symbol–The code is usually the first three-letters of the trivial name–Exceptions: asparagine (Asn), glutamine (Gln), isoleucine (Ile), & tryptophan (Trp)Peptide Bond•Short amino acid polymers– 2 residues -- dipeptide– 3 residues – tripeptide– 6 residues -- hexapeptide – 12 - 20 residues -- oligopeptide– Many residues – polypeptide– Functional -- proteinAmino Acids & ProteinsProteinPrimary StructurePrimary StructurePrimary structure determine foldingSecondary StructureSecondary StructureSecondary StructureTertiary StructureTertiary StructureProteins One or more polypeptide chains–Monomer, dimer, trimer, oligomer, multimer–Homodimer, heterodimer, homotrimer, etc.•Subunits often designated as , , , , Amino Acids & ProteinsDisulfide BondsAmino Acids & ProteinsQuaternary StructureFibrous proteinsQuaternary StructureGlobular proteinsCarbohydratesCarbohydrates – Cn(H2O)nCarbohydrates – Cn(H2O)nCarbohydrates – Cn(H2O)n2 monosaccharides - disaccharide3 monosaccharides trisaccharideseveral monosaccharides - oligosaccharide many monosaccharides - polysaccharideStarch & GlycogenCarbohydratesCarbohydratesLipidsLipids – Fatty AcidsLipids – Fatty AcidsLipidsTriacylglyceridesLipidsPhospholipidsLipids – SterolsLipids – Fatty SterolsLipids – WaxesLipidsNucleotides & Nucleic AcidsNucleotidesNucleotidesNucleotidesNucleic acidsNucleic acidsNucleic acidsNucleotides & Nucleic acidsNucleotides & Nucleic

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