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Body as a Whole (Ch. 1) Human Anatomy

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Body as a Whole -- Page 1 of 3 Insight: Situs inversus Body as a Whole (Ch. 1) Human Anatomy I. Ways to study the body A. Anatomy – study of structures & their relationships “upward”  “cut” o gross anatomy—visible to naked eye o systemic anatomy o regional anatomy o pathological anatomy – changes due to disease “disease”  o microscopic anatomy - histology – “study of tissues” - cytology – “ study of cells” We’ll take a gross systemic approach B. Physiology – the study of function C. RULE #1: Structure is related to Function, or (from an architect) “Form ever follows function” o functional morphology emphasizes this “form”  NRF “Methods of study…” II. Variation in human structure RULE #2: Anatomical variation is the rule, not the exception or, more poetically and more authoritatively: Variability is the law of life -- Sir William Osler, 19th c physician or, even more historically: The human features and countenance, although composed of some ten parts or a little more, are so fashioned that among so many thousands of men there are no two in existence who cannot be distinguished from one another -- Pliny the Elder, AD 23-79 -- See Deeper Insight 1.1 & Fig. 1.5 III. Levels of structural organization A. Know Fig 1.6  Define & give example for each levelBody as a Whole -- Page 2 of 3 IV. Language of anatomy “These words are just too much.” – overheard from a former anatomy student -- every test will include word roots 1. eponyms vs. medical terms “after”  ”name” Ex: Eustachian tube vs. auditory tube --medical terms typically include a prefix, root, & suffix pericardial “around”   pertaining to heart 2. precision is important ilium vs. ileum 3. Anatomical position  Fig. 1.8 -- standard reference 4. Anatomical planes & sections imaginary   real  Know Fig 1.8 & 1.9, including alternate names **Add “parasagittal”: divides body into unequal left/right portions “alongside” or “near” 5. Directional terms  Know Table 1.1 6. Regional terms: Fig. 1.10  learn only axial terms for now (use Glossary if necessary) cranial = top of head sternal = midline chest umbilical = navel cephalic = head pectoral = either side midline abdominal facial interscapular inguinal = groin cervical = neck vertebral pubic nuchal = back of neck lumbar = loin thoracic = chest sacral = between hips 7. Abdominopelvic quadrants  Know: Fig. 1.11a -- umbilicus is intersecting point of planes -- know names and abbreviations (RUQ, etc.) 8. Abdominopelvic regions (9)  Know Fig. 1.11c (NRF dividing planes) -- Note that not all regions are of equal size -- Don’t worry about “contents” -- Practical value doubtful  great variation among individuals/age  different practitioners use different planesBody as a Whole -- Page 3 of 3 V. Body Cavities Know Table 1.2, Fig. 1.12 A. Dorsal (now officially obsolete) 1. cranial 2. vertebral B. Ventral (now officially obsolete) 1. thoracic - pericardial  surrounds heart, contains fluid - pleural  surrounds lungs, contains fluid -mediastinum  not a cavity, but a partition/region between pleural cavities which includes the heart, pericardial cavity, & other structures ----- separated by diaphragm ------ 2. abdominopelvic, separated by an imaginary plane into abdominal & pelvic -- peritoneal  surrounds organs, contains


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