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Making carbon-trading mechanisms accessible to indigenous groups

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Making carbon-trading mechanisms accessible to indigenous groups: Lessons from working with Maori in New ZealandGarth Harmsworth and Troy BaisdenLandcare ResearchPalmerston North, New [email protected]@LandcareResearch.co.nzUSDA Symposium, Baltimore, USAMarch 2005Funding from New Zealand Foundation for Research Science and Technology, and Ministry of Agriculture and ForestryBackground•FCCC and Kyoto address climate change because of environmental and social equity issues.•Maori are the indigenous people of New Zealand. •We are working with Maori groups– increasing participation in science, – finding out about aspirations and issues– to inform policy we ask Maori how they will respond to policy options•We examine what we know about Maori land, and its suitability for C sequestration•We aim to help develop policy that works for Maori, in line with Maori issues, governance structures, aspirationsThe Kyoto Protocol in New Zealand• New Zealand has signed and ratified• Target is 1990 baseline • Unusual emissions inventory:– Animal agriculture dominates emissions– Exotic forests dominate sinks• Policy frameworks being developed– C taxes, etc. will apply– Initial “projects” approaches underway– No credit for exotic forests in CP1.– Permanent forest sink mechanismAfforestation (FCCC) “Direct human-induced conversion of land that has not been forested for a period of at least 50 years, through planting seeding, human-induced promotion etc”Reforestation (FCCC) “Direct human-induced conversion of non-forested land to forested land through planting, seeding, human promotion…on land that was forested”Marginal land“Severe limitations to agricultural use, >26 degrees, highly susceptible to erosion, low productivity, not sustainable under pasture. Class 7, 8, and some (10-30%) Class 6 landUndeveloped land“Under-utilised, not developed, not in a productive state, unimproved pasture, scrub, indigenous forest”DefinitionsMaori: People and the Land•Indigenous Maori make up 15% of present New Zealand population (an assimilated, multi-cultural population with a strong Maori identity)•Maori are of polynesian extract (came to NZ ~1000 years ago)•80% of Maori live in urban centres, but many own land throughout New Zealand based on ancestral-tribal connections and family (whanau) lineage•Maori land now represents only 6% (1.5 Mha) of the total NZ land area•Much of this land is fragmented, large proportion described as undeveloped (~600,000 ha), large areas marginalThe Extent of Maori LandMaori Land: Ownership & Governance• Maori land differs from the western model – Multiple-ownership; many forms of governance and management– Ancestral and historical connections are important– These factors are reflected in legislation, politics, and land-owner aspirations • Existing information on Maori land in NZ poor– Myths and anecdotes dominateThis may be typical of land owned or managed This may be typical of land owned or managed by indigenous groups around the worldby indigenous groups around the worldResearch: GIS Analysis of Maori Land• Quantify land areas for:1. New Zealand2. Gisborne-East Coast – Tairawhiti (case study) Determine:• Maori land characteristics – land use capability• Maori ownership (governance) structures (decision-making ability of groups) • Areas of marginal land• Land cover (land use)• Land eligible for reforestation/afforestation under Kyoto• Opportunities for re/afforestation and risks of deforestationKey research questions• How much Maori land is available for afforestation/reforestation, and at risk to deforestation?• How are Maori likely to respond to policies?• How do governance structures affect Maoriland use? decision-making?• How can we design policies to address the concerns of Maori?Legislation and ClassificationMaori Land Act (Te Ture Whenua Act) 1993Classifies land into: 1. Maori freehold land (5 main types of trust)2. Maori customary land3. General land owned by Maori• Where multiply-owned land results in absentee ownership, the Office of the Maori Trustee manages land on behalf of ownersAhu Whenua Trusts 50%Whanau Trusts 6%Kaitiaki Trusts 0.01%Whenua Topu Trusts 2%Putea Trusts 0%Incorporations 13%Trust Boards 4%No Clear Structure 13%Other 2%Not Described 4%Governance of Maori LandWell over 40% of Maori land regarded as marginal (Class 7 and 8 and areas on Class 6)Land Use Capability and Maori Land Š New Zealand Š 1996Land UseCapabilityClassMaoriLand area(ha)% of TotalLand% of MaoriLandDescription1 6 060 0.7% 0.4% Most versatile2 40 755 4.6% 2.7% Good land with slightarable limitations3 87 116 9.2% 5.8% Moderate arablelimitations4 148 628 10.3% 9.8% More suitable topasture and forestry5 5757 0.8% 0.04% Unsuitable forcropping6 515 730 28.0% 34.0% Moderate limitationsto pasture7 487 701 21.5% 32.2% >26 slopes8 201 201 22.1% 13.3% Mountain LandOther 21 665 3.0% 1.4% Non-arable land,wetlands etc.Land CoverIndigenous forest 23%Scrub (regenerating)23%Planted Exotic Forest 7%Primary pastoral 44%Primary horticultural 1%Inland water and wetlands 0.5%Other (Urban, mines, tussock) 1.5%33%20%12%30%0.1%2.0%2.0%Overall Maori LandKey Findings: Land Analysis• Total of 300,000 – 400,000 ha of Maori land defined as marginal • Of this – most Maori marginal land is in mature indigenous forest and scrub • Only about 55,000 ha Maori pastoral land (grassland) is marginal• Most marginal Maori pastoral land (~45,000 ha) is in the case study region • Existing land in indigenous forest and scrub is at risk of clearance¾ Aim policies at promoting afforestation/ reforestation and examine risk of clearing regenerating indigenous forest for exotic plantationsKey research questions• How much Maori land is available for afforestation/reforestation, and at risk to deforestation?• How are Maori likely to respond to policies?• How do governance structures affect Maori land use? decision-making?• How can we design policies to address the concerns of Maori?Maori Perspectives• Place paramount importance on retention and control of their land • Are constrained by practical governance and ownership issues• Are constrained by costs associated with new schemes or changing land-use • Consider Local Government costs and restrictions• Have unique perspectives on contracts, concepts of perpetuity, payment schedules, customary use, provision for


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