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Problems for PresentationsIntroduction to PhonologyLin4320/6323Wiltshire Fall 2008For Class Friday 11/7: choose the two problems you would most like to present; youwill present only one, but not everyone can get their top choice. Give me a list, ranked 1-2 of your top choices, on 11/7 and I will let you know theschedule on Monday, 11/10. Each presentation will involve 3 students working together.Dates Problem Topic Presenters12/1 Scottish English Rules, Phonemics12/1 Arabic Sun/Moon Rules, CV tier12/1 Tangale Rules, Ordering12/3 Akan Rules, Autosegmental12/3 Lebanese Syllables, Sonority12/3 Bakwiri Tones/Tiers12/5 English L2 Syllables & OT12/5 Sanskrit and Pali Syllables & OT12/5 Spanish Syllables & OT12/8 Child's Language OTGuidelines for presentations:There are two goals for these exercises: one goal is to ensure that we do moreproblems in class; the second is for me to get a sense of how well you're understandingthe material by testing your ability to explain it. As an added bonus, you get to talk morein class, learn from each other, and get a break from me lecturing! To make this succeed:1. Every student should do every problem. Presenters should feel free to assumethat everyone in class has read, thought about, and worked on the problembefore class.2. You will be working in small groups. Presenters are responsible for meetingbefore their presentation date to work out an answer and decide who will presentwhat; everyone in the group should contribute. You may consult with me beforepresenting your solution, to see if you are on the right track.3. Each problem includes a number of questions to be discussed, but you do nothave to answer them in order or divide up the presentation into one question perperson.4. I expect each presentation to take 10-15 minutes, and it counts for 8% of yourgrade. You will get a good grade for a presentation that is well prepared; you donot have to be absolutely correct, but you do have to be prepared to talk througha solution, recreating it on the board or on an overhead and explaining as you go. Feel free to create some visual aids to help explain your answer.5. You should also be prepared to be challenged or corrected if necessary duringthe presentation, by the professor or by other students. Again, the grade isbased on your preparation, so such challenges do not mean a bad grade. As you are working with difficult material, I do not expect perfect answers every time. Infact, some of the problems I am assigning cause disagreement among phonologists. So be ready for questions, and interpret them as signs of interest rather than conflict.Wednesday, Dec. 1st Scottish English Rules/PhonemicsConsider the distribution of long vs. short vowels in the data in A below. What factorsdetermine vowel length? The distribution is predictable; write a rule to account for it.A. a. [bi+‹] 'beer' [bin] 'bean' [fi{] 'feel'b. [bik] 'beak' [bi+v‹] 'beaver' [i:z] 'ease'c. [rœm] 'room' [mœ+v] 'move' [brœ+] 'brew'd. [sœ+ ð] 'soothe' [sœp] 'soup' [mœ+‹] 'moor'e. [e{] 'whale' [we+] 'weigh' [sket] 'skate'f. [wef] 'waif' [be+ð] 'bathe' [des] 'dace'g. [{od] 'load' [no+z] 'nose' [ob] 'robe'h. [po+‹] 'pore' [blo+] 'blow' [gost] 'ghost'Now consider the pairs below. B. i. [nid] 'need' [ni+d] 'kneed'j. [brœd] 'brood' [brœ+d] 'brewed'k. [wed] 'wade' [we+d] 'weighed'l. [od] 'ode' [o+d] 'owed'How do these affect your analysis? Can you still use a rule to account for the data in B aswell as A? Is the distinction between long and short vowels phonemic in Scottish English?Monday, Dec. 1st Levantine Arabic Rules, CV TierTraditionally, Arab grammarians divide the consonants of Arabic into two groups: the 'sun'and the 'moon' letters, based on their effect on the definite prefix /l/ 'the'. Coronal consonantscause total assimilation of the prefix:Moon:Noun Definite Sun: Noun Definite[walad] [lwalad] 'the boy' [sana] [ssana] 'year'[mooz] [lmooz] 'banana' [nuur] [nnuur] 'light'[kuusa] [lkuusa] 'squash'[hawa] [lhawa] 'air'Levantine Arabic has another rule that interacts with this assimilation: (I am using S to indicatea pharyngealized C)Noun Definite Noun Definite[blaad] [liblaad] 'country' [zbuun] [zzbuun] 'customer'[ktaab] [liktaab] 'book' [druus] [ddruus] 'lessons'[hSsSaan] [lihSsSaan] 'horse' [treen] [ttreen] 'train'[lhSaaf] [llhSaaf] 'blanket'Write two rules to account for the above data. How does using a CV tier help explain therelationship between the two rules? Do you need more structure than the RolodexAutosegmental model?Monday, Dec. 1st Tangale Rules, Orderinga. Consider the nominal paradigm from the Chadic language Tangale:Noun Definite Posessive 1sg. Poss.2sg. Poss. 3sg.f glossloo loo-i loo-no loo-go loo-do 'meat'bugat bugat-i bugad-no bugat-ko bugat-to 'window'tugat tugad-i tugad-no tugad-go tugad-do 'berry'aduk aduk-i adug-no aduk-ko aduk-to 'load'kuluk kulug-i kulug-no kulug-go kulug-do 'harp'i. What are the underlying forms of the nouns listed?ii. Write rules to account for the stem-final voicing alternations.iii. Write a rule to account for the alternation in the 2sg. and 3sg.f. possessive suffixes.b. Now consider the following:Noun Definite Posessive 1sg. Poss.2sg. Poss. 3sg.f glosswudo wud-i wud-no wud-go wud-do 'tooth'lutu lut-i lut-no lut-ko lut-to 'bag'taga tag-i tag-no tag-go tag-do 'shoe'duka duk-i duk-no duk-ko duk-to 'salt'õuli õul-i õul-no õul-go õul-do 'truth'iv. What are the underlying forms of the nouns listed in b.?v. What further rule operates on the noun paradigm shown in b.?vi. How does this rule interact with those you proposed for a.? Name the interactions(bleeding, feeding, etc.) and illustrate with examples.vii. How does Tangale support the idea of using distinctive features instead of indivisiblesegments? Provide (at least) two arguments, and explain.Wednesday, Dec 3rdAkan Rules, AutosegmentalThe nine vowel system of Akan is usually represented as two subgroups:[+ATR] [-ATR]iu weo e]YA. Using the features [high, low, back, round, ATR], draw up a feature matrix whichdistinguishes all nine vowelsB. In the root morphemes of Akan, the vowels must be all [+ATR] or all [-ATR]. Forexample, /fiti/, /fite/, /fito/ and /fitu/ are all possible roots, but */fitw/, */fite/, */fit]/ and/fit/ are not. Now, look at the following data:1. [o-fiti-i] 'he pierced it' 2. []-±wre-w] 'he showed it'3. [e-bu-o] 'nest' 4. [e-b-]] 'stone'Each form consists of a prefix, a root, and a suffix;

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