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ECE Technical Report

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IntroductionMotivation - Why Investigate Switching Mode Power Amplifiers?Outline of Thesis ApproachCMCD TopologyWhy Current Mode Class-DDifferences and Similarities Between CMCD, and F, D, inverse F, EFoddCurrent Mode Class D Amplifier DesignThe CircuitExpected Mode of Operation/Heuristic ExplanationDetailed explanation of operation of each componentDevices UsedSimulation Results and PredictionsIdeal CMCD (ADS Using Ideal Switch Model)With Device ModelEarly Simulations with simplified structures (Ideal Matching Networks, Etc.)Full Layout Based SimulationsFrom Schematic to Actual CircuitConstruction ConsiderationsPrototyping DetailsPrinted Circuit Board ManufacturingMechanical Test FixturesTest Equipment SetupTuning the CircuitsTuning and Adjustments Required for OperationResults of TuningMeasurements SectionMethodologyJustification for Measured ParametersTest SetupCalibrationsFirst Amplifier MeasurementsSecond and Third Amplifier ResultsResultsNotes/AnalysisAnalysis of MeasurementsWhat Do We Actually Have? Class-D, Inverse F ?Differences between simulation and actual circuitConclusionsSummaryFuture WorkAcknowledgementsReferencesHigh Frequency Current Mode Class-D Amplifiers With High Output Power and Efficiency By Anthony Lawrence Long M.S. Thesis ECE Technical Report #03-XX Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9560 May 2003 iUNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Santa Barbara High Frequency Current Mode Class-D Amplifiers With High Output Power and Efficiency A Thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering By Anthony Lawrence Long Committee in charge: Professor Stephen I. Long, Chair Professor Mark J. Rodwell Professer Robert A. York April 2003 iiThe Thesis of Anthony Lawrence Long is approved ____________________________________ Stephen I. Long ____________________________________ Mark J. Rodwell ____________________________________ Robert A. York iiiHigh Frequency Current Mode Class-D Amplifiers With High Output Power and Efficiency Copyright © 2003 By Anthony Lawrence Long ivABSTRACT High Frequency Current Mode Class-D Amplifiers With High Output Power and Efficiency By Anthony Lawrence Long A 13 watt Current Mode Class-D (CMCD) with 60% efficiency is presented. This amplifier is the highest power switch mode microwave power amplifier reported to date. The CMCD architecture is an improvement over the Voltage Mode Class-D in that the parasitic reactance in the active device can be absorbed into the tank circuit resulting in a zero voltage switching condition. Additionally, two similar amplifiers are presented for use with advanced linearization techniques. 1Dedication Joseph Francis Martinet N6ELW November 24 1960 – February 12, 2003 I dedicate this thesis to my Uncle Joe who inspired me at a young age to become an engineer, and always gave me advice and support for my fascination with all things wireless and microwave. 2Table of Contents I. Introduction a. Motivation – Why Investigate Switch Mode High Power Amplifiers? b. Outline of Thesis Approach II. CMCD Topology a. Benefits of Current Mode Class D b. Comparison of CMCD and F, D, Inverse F, EFodd III. Current Mode Class D Amplifier Design a. The Circuit i. Expected Mode of Operation/Heuristic Explanation ii. Detailed Explanation of Operation of Each Component b. Devices Used c. Simulation Results and Predictions i. Ideal CMCD ii. With Device Model iii. Early Simulations With Simplified Structures (Ideal Matching Networks, Etc.) iv. Full Layout Based Simulations IV. From Schematic to Actual Circuit a. Construction Considerations b. Prototyping Details 3i. Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing ii. Mechanical Fixture Design iii. Test Equipment Setup c. Tuning the circuits i. Tuning and Adjustments Required For Operation ii. Results of Tuning V. Measurements a. Methodology i. Justification for Measured Parameters ii. Test Setup iii. Calibrations b. First Power Amplifier i. Results ii. Notes/Analysis c. Second and Third Amplifiers i. Results ii. Notes/Analysis VI. Analysis of Measurements a. What Do We Actually Have? Class D, Inverse-F ? b. Differences and Similarities With Simulation and Constructed Amplifier VII. Conclusions 4a. Summary b. Future Work VIII. Acknowledgements References Appendix A: Data Sheets For Selected Components 5I. Introduction a. Motivation - Why Investigate Switching Mode Power Amplifiers? The 1990’s saw the rapid development of the wireless telecommunications industry around the world. Wireless handheld devices (phones, pagers, two-way messaging devices, etc.) have become massively popular, spurring a need for new electronic components and circuits in both mobile and base station systems as competition drives the introduction of expanded capabilities. Consuming and wasting the most power in these new wireless communications systems are the RF power amplifiers. To extend battery life in mobile units, and reduce operating costs of base stations, new amplifiers must be developed to replace the traditionally inefficient, old designs currently in use. Broadband wireless data services and multiple-carrier next generation systems specify amplifiers with a high degree of linearity over a broad frequency range. Base station amplifiers of today employ many complex techniques to meet this requirement, with accompanying low efficiencies of perhaps 10%. Handset power amplifiers also suffer from efficiency problems, often more critical than those for base stations. For many decades, linear power amplifiers of the Class-A and Class-AB type have been employed as RF power amplifiers for cellular base station systems. These amplifiers are based on the operation of a transistor in its linear mode. As such, they 6are limited in their ability to efficiently amplify RF signals. In 1975 N.O. and A. D. Sokal published the first paper [1] on a new class of RF amplifiers wherein the transistor is operated as a switch, or in its saturated mode. The losses associated with the saturated mode of operation are potentially very close to zero, resulting in amplifiers with perfect theoretical efficiency and very high (up to 97%) measured efficiency. Switching mode amplifiers have seen many years of use in


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