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UCF EEL 5937 - Sensor Network Applications

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Sensor Network Applications Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring Mainwaring 2002 Introduction Habitat and environmental monitoring represent essential class of sensor network applications by placing numerous networked micro sensors in an environment where long term data collection can be achieved The sensor nodes perform filtering and triggering functions as well as application specific or sensor specific data compression algorithms thru the integration of local processing and storage The ability to communicate allows nodes to cooperate in performing tasks such as statistical sampling data aggregation and system health and status monitoring Increased power efficiency assists in resolving fundamental design tradeoffs e g between sampling rates and battery lifetimes Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring Mainwaring 2002 Introduction The sensor nodes can be reprogrammed or retasked after deployment in the field by the networking and computing capabilities provided Nodes can adapt their operation over time in response to changes in the environment The application context helps to differentiate problems with simple and concrete solutions from open research areas An effective sensor network architecture and general solutions should be developed for the domain The impact of sensor networks for habitat and environmental monitoring is measured by their ability to enable new applications and produce new results Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring Mainwaring 2002 Introduction This paper develops a specific habitat monitoring application but yet a representative of the domain It presents a collection of requirements constraints and guidelines that serve as a basis for general sensor network architecture It describes the core components of the sensor network for this domain hardware and sensor platforms the distinct networks involved their interconnection and the data management facilities The design and implementation of the essential network services power management communications re tasking and node management can be evaluated in this context Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring Mainwaring 2002 Habitat Monitoring Researchers in the Life Sciences are concerned about the impacts of human presence in monitoring plants and animals in the field conditions It is possible that chronic human disturbance may adversely effect results by changing behavioral patterns or distributions Disturbance effects are of concern in small island situations where it may be physically impossible for researchers to avoid some impact on an entire population Seabird colonies are extreme sensitive to human disturbance Research in Maine Anderson 1995 suggests that a 15 minute visit to a cormorant colony can result in up to 20 mortality among eggs and chicks in a given breeding year Repeated disturbance can lead to the end of the colony Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring Mainwaring 2002 Habitat Monitoring On Kent Island Nova Scotia research learned that Leach s Storm Petrels are likely to desert their nesting burrows in case of disturbance during the first two weeks of incubation Sensor networks advances the monitoring methods over the traditional invasive ones Sensors can be deployed prior to the breeding season or other sensitive period or while plants are dormant or the ground is frozen on small islets where it would be unsafe or unwise to repeatedly attempt field studies Sensor network deployment may be more economical method for conducting long term studies than traditional personnel rich methods A deploy em and leave em strategy of wireless sensor usage would decrease the logistical needs to initial placement and occasional servicing Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring Mainwaring 2002 Great Duck Island The College of Atlantic COA is field testing in situ sensor networks for habitat monitoring Great Duck Island GDI is a 237 acre island located 15 km south of Mount Desert Island Maine At GDI three major questions in monitoring the Leach s Storm Petrel Anderson 1995 1 What is the usage pattern of nesting burrows over the 24 72 hour cycle when one or both members of a breeding pair may alternate incubation duties with feeding at sea 2 What changes can be observed in the burrow and surface environmental parameters during the course of the approximately 7 month breeding season April October Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring Mainwaring 2002 Great Duck Island 3 What are the differences in the micro environments with and without large numbers of nesting petrels Presence absence data is obtained through occupancy detection and temperature differentials between burrows with adult birds and burrows that contain eggs chicks or are empty Petrels will most likely enter or leave during the daytime however 5 10 minutes during late evening and early morning measurements are needed to capture the entry and exit timings More general environmental differentials between burrow and surface conditions can be captured by records every 2 4 hours during the extended breeding season whereas the differences between popular and unpopular sites benefit from hourly sampling Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring Mainwaring 2002 Great Duck Island Requirements 1 Internet Access The sensor networks at GDI must be accessible via the Internet since the ability to support remote interactions with in situ networks is essential 2 Hierarchical Network Habitats of interest are located up to several kilometers away A second tier of wireless networking provides connectivity to multiple patches of sensor networks deployed at each of the areas 3 Sensor Network Longevity Sensor networks that runs for several month from non rechargeable power sources would be desirable since studies at GDI can span multiple field seasons Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring Mainwaring 2002 Great Duck Island Requirements 4 Operating off the grid Every level of the network must operate with bounded energy supplies Renewable energy such as solar power may be available some locations disconnected operation is a possibility GDI has enough solar power that run the application 24x7 with small probabilities of service interruptions due to power loss 5 Management at a distance Remoteness of the field sites requires the ability to monitor and manage sensor networks over the Internet The goal is no on site presence for maintenance and administration during the field season except for


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