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pSeries Overview and Essential Commands August, 2002 st, 2002 Charles Grassl harles rassl IBM Advanced Computing Technology Center I ti l tr Design i choices coices pSeries Overview is i Essential Commands til s System configuration t fi ti Administration iit ti Agenda Technology Collaboration Divisions: iii RS/6000 Division / iii CPU architecture arcitecture Operating System eratig Syste IBM Research Computer Science tr Science Applications li ti s Communication i Semiconductor i t S/390 / Large System Manufacturing arge yste a factrig Advanced Chip Technologies 1997: Copper Circuitry : i it New semiconductor i t manufacturing f t i process Copper has higher i electron mobility l t ilit SOI SiO2 1998: Silicon-On-Insulator : ili - -Islt Thin layer of SiO i l f i 22 under silicon surface ili f 25% less power at the l t t same frequenc f yy 1-4 Advanced Chip Technologies 2000: 2000: low-k dielectric l - ielectric Shielded Copper ile o er circuits circuits Fundamental change undaental change in materials in aterials Reduces "cross-talk" educes "cross-talk" 2001: Strained Silicon : t i ili material is aterial is stretched/strained stretched/strained Speeds up flow of Speeds up flo of electrons electrons Integrated Circuit Trends It t i it s Smaller line widths ll Nearly 0.1 micron . i Lower voltages lt Changing every year! i eery year! High signal speed i SiO i 22 Copper Low - k dielectric - ilectric Microprocessor Manufacturing Trendss Dramatic increase in gate count per chip i i i t t er ci Size: ~400 sq. mm (20 mm x 20 mm) i : . ( ) "Line width" --> 0.11 micron i it -- . i Higher gate pitch i t it Gates are closer together ates are closer togeter ~200 million transistors per chip illi t it i Lithography Advances Design Options Low power chips o er cis Smaller chips ller cips Simpler circuits i ler circuits High performance i erfr ce Larger on-chip cache arger o-cip cache "Wide" CPUs ie s New designs e esigs Multithread ltitrea More CPUs per chip s per chip 5-8 Microprocessor Architecture Trends "Wider" processors (CPUs) i Multiple instruction issue ltil i t ti i POWER Alpha l Long instruction word i t ti IA-64 I-64 Multithread li Cray MTA IBM Blue Gene and Blue Light l l i t IBM pSeries 660 i Intel Pentium 4 tl ti Multiple processors per chip ltil i POWER4 Multiple Processors per Chip Retain previous architecture i i i Binary compatibility i tiilit Retain software investment etai softare ivestet Performance Parallelism llli Capability ilit Capacity aacity Limited benefit from "wider" architectures i it fit fro "ider" architectures Shared resources Memory Network connections t ti New Name Old Name Market CPU iSeries AS400 Commercial RS64 pSeries RS/6000, SP Technical POWER3: WH, NH Regatta: POWER4 xSeries IA-32 Server Pentium, Itanium zSeries ES9000 Mainframe RS64 IBM Product Naming I t i AIX Evolution i Derivatives of AT&T 1983 AIX V3 - IBM RS/600 POWER Reduced Instruction Set architecture. ...

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