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Dynamic Balance Force Control for Compliant Humanoid Robots



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Dynamic Balance Force Control for Compliant Humanoid Robots Benjamin J Stephens Christopher G Atkeson Abstract This paper presents a model based method called Dynamic Balance Force Control DBFC for determining full body joint torques based on desired COM motion and contact forces for compliant humanoid robots The center of mass COM dynamics are affected directly through contact force control to achieve stable balance This idea is used to formulate DBFC considering the full rigid body dynamics of the robot to produce desired contact forces To achieve generic force control tasks a virtual model controller DBFC VMC is presented Examples using this control are presented as results from simulation and experiments on a force controlled humanoid robot I INTRODUCTION Humanoid robots must operate in complex environments while interacting closely with people and performing a wide variety of tasks Many tasks involve the regulation of forces requiring compliant mechanisms and controllers that are stable but also safe and robust to unknown disturbances This paper describes a simple method of control for full body balance and other tasks that is suitable for compliant forcecontrolled humanoid robots While humanoid robots are very complex systems the dynamics that govern balance are often described using simple models of the center of mass COM 1 It has been shown through dynamic simulation that humanoid balance depends critically on controlling the linear and angular momentum of the system 2 quantities that can be directly controlled by contact forces This suggests that balance is a fundamentally low dimensional problem that can be solved by contact force control This idea is the inspiration for the controller presented in this paper Given a robot with stiff joint position control and a known environment the most common approach to balance is to generate a stable trajectory of the COM and then track it using inverse kinematics IK 3 For environments with small uncertainty or small



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