Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide

Study Guide
University of Southern California
Bisc 307l - General Physiology
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BISC 307L 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide I. BLOOD 1. What components make up blood?  1. 42% Red blood cells (Hematocrit)  2. 1% White Blood Cells  3. 50% Plasma o Na+,K+,Ca2+,H+, proteins (clotting proteins-fibrinogen) 2. What are the 7 types of blood leukocytes?  1. B cells  2. T cells  3. Monocytes (tissue or blood)  4. Macrophages (mature monocytes-tissue or blood)  5. Neutrophils  6. Easinophils  7. Basophils 3. Explain hematopoesis- what are the cytokines involved and what is being produced?  Cytokines: 3 types o 1. EPO (kidney)erythrocytes (lifespan 90-120 days) o 2. TPO megakaryocytes and platelets o 3. Colony stimulating factors, interleukins all cell types  Fetal life: in red bone marrow prevalentadulthood: only in femur, pelvis and ribs  Neutrophils produced at highest rate because have shortest life span  Pluripotent hematopoetic stem cellsuncommitted stem cellsfully committed progenitor cells (no longer stem) 4. What are the basic steps of hemostasis or blood clotting?- be able to explain all  1. Vasoconstriction- triggered by damage of smooth muscle cells  2. Platelet Plug formation- collagen and tissue facto contact platelets and initiate clotting (nitric oxide produced in healthy tissue prevents this from happening on a regular basis)  3. Coagulation- refer to coagulation cascade diagram  4. Tissue Repair  5. Thrombolysis- removing clot 5. What are the 3 things that platelets secrete when clotting?  1. Platelet activating factor (PAF)  2. Serotonin (vasoconstriction)  3. ADP 6. What role would aspirin play in this?  Inhibits the enzyme that produces thromboxane A2. Prevents coagulation cascade- inhibits clotting II. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND INNATE IMMUNITY 1. What are the main distinguishing factors between innate and acquired immunity?  Innate: non specific, inherited, rapid, no memory  Acquired: specific, adaptive, slower, memory 2. Explain the role of the spleen in the lymphatic system  where the blood is cleaned. Has two types of tissues  1. Red pulp: has macrophages and surround sinuses  2. White pulp: lymphocytes 3. What are some other lymphoid tissues?  1. The red bone marrow  2. Gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT)- small intestine  3. Tonsils and adenoids  4. Thymus gland (where T-cells mature) 4. What are our innate barrier defenses?  1. Skin  2. Other Epithelia- nasopharynx, respiratory tract, digestive tract, urinary tract, genital tract  3. Mucus (has lysozyme and IgA, cilia)  4. Normal Flora 5. Which immune cells are part of our innate cellular defences?  Basophils and mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and macrophages, dendritic cells (don’t leave tissue) 6. Which immune cells are considered phagocytes?  Neutrophils, eosinophils (for parasites), monocytes and macrophages 7. Which immune cells are considered granulocytes?  Basophils and mast cells, neutrophils, easinophils 8. Name some organ specific phagocytes  Microglia in brain, Kupffer cells in liver, fixed phagocytes in spleen and lymph ...

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