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Quarks Leptons Bosons the LHC and all that Tony Liss OLLI Lecture September 23 2008 Some HE Physicist Principles We are reductionists and proud of it Our worldview is that there are a small number of fundamental constituents interacting via a small number of forces that make up the Universe as we know it This picture has worked extremely well for about 2000 years The modern version has been untangled using particle beams of ever increasing energy The Standard Model The matter around us is made up of quarks and leptons A proton is made of uud Add an electron to make a hydrogen atom And held together by four forces each with a force carrier Electromagnetic Strong Weak The Standard Model The matter around us is made up of quarks and leptons Helium Atom particleadventure org The marriage of quantum mechanics and special relativity required that antiparticles exist Why High Energy From quantum theory we know 1 p Wavelength is inversely proportional to momentum If you want to see small things you need short wavelengths that s why electron microscopes were invented and short wavelengths means high momentum and energy From relativity we know E Mc2 If you want to create a heavy particle large M you need a lot of energy Unification of the Forces Electric Magnetic Weak Strong Electromagnetic Low Energy t y a w rt a P a m dre in E o Higgs Bosons born here Electroweak High Energy s n i ste Theory works up to here That s the region we want to probe with the LHC Very very High Energy HC N L CER Fermilab Protons antiprotons collide at 2 TeV 2 x 1012 electron volts The worlds highest energy particle accelerator Fermilab Makes Top Quarks The heaviest known elementary particle Discovered in 1994 Why is it so heavy We don t know pp tt W b e neb W b udb The Large Hadron Collider 2 7mi The world s largest highest energy accelerator 300 feet underground outside of Geneva Switzerland The LHC collides intense beams of protons 40 million times per second at 14 TeV France Grapes Switzerland






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