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PHYS 3446 LECTURE NOTES (16 pages)

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PHYS 3446 LECTURE NOTES

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Pages:
16
School:
University of Texas at Arlington
Course:
Phys 3446 - Nuclear and Particle Physics
Nuclear and Particle Physics Documents

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Monday, Oct. 30, 2006 PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu 1 PHYS 3446 – Lecture #15 Monday, Oct. 30, 2006 Dr. Jae Yu 1. Particle Accelerators • Electro-static Accelerators • Cyclotron Accelerators • Synchrotron Accelerators 2. Elementary Particle Properties • Forces and their relative magnitudes • Elementary particles • Quantum Numbers • Gell-Mann-Nishijima Relations • Production and Decay of Resonances Monday, Oct. 3 0, 2006 PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu 2 • Quiz in class Wednesday, Nov. 1 • LPCC Workshop Saturday, Nov. 4 • Homework: Carry out Fourier transformation and derive equations 9.3 and 9.5 Announcements Monday, Oct. 3 0, 2006 PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu 3 • How can one obtain high energy particles? – Cosmic ray  Sometimes we observe 1000TeV cosmic rays • Insufficient statistics due to low flux • Cannot control momenta too well • Need to look into small distances to probe the fundamental constituents with full control of particle energies and fluxes – Particle accelerators • What else do you think accelerators have do other than particle acceleration? – Track them – Maneuver (focus or turn) them – Constrain their motions to the order of 1m • Why? – Must correct particle paths and momenta to increase fluxes and control momenta Particle Accelerators Monday, Oct. 3 0, 2006 PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu 4 • Depending on what the main goals of physics are, one needs different kinds of accelerator experiments • Fixed target experiments: Probe the nature of the nucleons  Structure functions – Use neutrinos or charged leptons (electrons or muons) to probe proton or neutron internal structure – Results also can be used for producing secondary particles for further accelerations  Tevatron anti-proton production • Colliders: Probes the interactions between fundamental constituents – Hadron colliders: Wide kinematic ranges and high discovery potential • Proton-anti-proton: TeVatron at Fermilab, SppS at CERN • Proton-Proton: Large Hadron Collider at CERN (late 2007) Particle Accelerator Types Monday, Oct. 3 0, 2006 PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu 5 – Lepton colliders: Very narrow kinematic reach, so it is used for precision measurements • Electron-positron: LEP at CERN, Petra at DESY, PEP at SLAC, Tristan at KEK, ILC in the med-range future • Muon-anti-muon: Conceptual accelerator in the far future – Lepton-hadron colliders: HERA at DESY • Probe deep inside the hadrons • How do these do this? • Leptons do not have internal structure but hadrons do.. • So whatever comes out of the interactions are due to hadron internal structure Particle Accelerator Types



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